Tag: middle-east

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF HAZARA MONGOL


 

BY: ISHAQ MOHAMMADI

ISHAQ MOHAMMADI

Respected guests! It is a great honor to be here and celebrate 850th anniversary of the greatest conqueror in human history. The Great Gengez Khan was not only a great warrior but also a great thinker of his time, who bestowed a comprehensive law in the form of YASA to his people and other entire conquered nations. It is a matter of sorrow that some historians especially Iranians and Arabs have mentioned him and his successors as barbaric while it is a fact that on the contrary he, along with his successors brought peace, stability, justice and prosperity to all the conquered regions and introduced unique kinds of knowledge and art. It was Mongols who promoted miniature art to its peak especially during the Ilkhante period (Ikhan means younger Khan). They also promoted the new form of history writing which we  in Persian say “WAQAE NIGARI” or narration of facts. Some famous Muslim historians like Rashid-ud-Din-Fazlluah, Juwayni, Wassaf etc are  gifts of Ilkhante Mongol dynasty. The famous kind of Persian inscription “NASTALIQ” that is being used till now, is also the gift of the Great khan’s successors.

Honorable guests! It is not possible for me to shed light on the life of this greatest conqueror of the world but it is a good opportunity to introduce briefly my Hazara nation who is a part of “ULUS MUQUUL” that  the Great Khan himself named in spring 1206,s “QORALTAE” or grand assembly  held in “QURAQURAM”. Historians, who know Hazaras, believe that they are pure Mongol or some believe that they are turcko-Mongolian origin. It is correct that some Turkic tribes like QALAJ, QARLUQ , TURKMAN etcare now part of Hazara nation but the big portion of Hazara nation consists of pure Mongol origin. Like DAE CHOPAN (an Ilkhante commander), DAE BERKA(a Mongol commander), , ARGHUN (Il Khanate Commander), NEKODAR(Jughtain commander)or  BESUD .It  would be  very interesting for the audience to know that in Hazara BESUD there is a sub-tribe with the name of  “BURJAQIN”  which is believed to be the name of the tribe of the Great Khan himself. It is worth mentioning that the Turk tribe like NAEMAN is now part of Hazara nation but was merged into “ULUS MUQUUL” by the Great Khan. Historically it has been proved that up to the early 16th century some Hazara tribes were speaking Mongolian language as mentioned by king Babur the founder of Mughul dynasty in India in his famous book TUZKI BABURI. Despite the similarity of tribal names there are dozens of places in Hazarajat with the purely Mongolian name like JIGHATU near Ghazni  (driven with name of JUGHTAEE, the Great Khan’s son), BU-SED (taken with the name of ILKHANATE king BU-SAEED). CHOPAN (an  ILKHANATE commander as mentioned earlier).

Honorable guests, in spite of all other historic facts, a scientific research carried by Oxford University Bio-Chemistry Department in 2003, also proved that Hazara people are Mongolian origin. It is worth to mention that a campaign has been initiated here in the United States to explore the origin of Hazara through complete DNA test. I am sure that the finding of this research will not be other than the research done by the Oxford University of Great Brittan.

Hazara as a new nation established a great kingdom under  Arghun dynasty  in early 16th century which consists from Kabul to Sindh (present Pakistan). Later on Babur captured Kabul and Qandahar but their rule remained intact on the vast areas of northern Balochistan, Sindh and Multan (present Pakistan) up to 1591 A.D. The reflection of  the glory of Arghun can be seen in “MUKHLI” graveyard Thatha, which was the capital of this dynasty. Keeping in view the unique style of construction MUKHLI has been entitled as “World Heritage”.

Honorable guests!  Unfortunately the deprivation of Hazara started on the rise of Safavid in Iran. Safavid captured Qandahar in 1653A.D and posted Gargin Khan as governor with a clear intention to expel Hazara Mongol from plain lands of Heart to Kabul. He did complete this task by pushing Hazaras from their plain lands and planted a new Pashtoon Ghalzai tribe on the occupied Hazara lands. This occupation process kept continued and even made faster during ABDALID in 18th century. And this policy was finalized by Amir Abdur Rehman during 1880 to 1893 who annexed Hazarajat the land of Hazara nation and made part of his new Afghan kingdom (Afghanistan) forcefully. During 1880 to 1893 war, Amir Abdul Rehman has eliminated 62% of Hazaras in Hazarajat and disowned them of their fertile lands which were later on, distributed among Pashtoon nomads (Kochi). Therefore now historians agree that from hundred to hundred and fifty thousand square miles has been reduced in total area of Hazara home land.

Ladies and gentlemen! Despite all this massacre and genocide, Hazaras being a Mongol warrior not only exist in Afghanistan but now considered as a hope for a bright future of this war hit country because of their extra ordinary constructive abilities. Hazaras have got the highest education rate in Afghanistan in both genders. The  ever first Olympic medalist Rohullah Nekpai, ever first world boxing champion Hamid Rahimi, ever first female Governor Habiba Sarabi and ever first female Mayor Azra Jafferi  are the best proofs of being an extra ordinary nation in Afghanistan’s three centuries long history from one hand, while on the other hand it also reflect to their Mongolian origin ethnicity in which women had and still have a significant role in the society. Otherwise in Afghanistan like orthodox Muslim scenario, women are considered as an absurd product.

Honorable guests! During the Dark Age of Abdur Rehman and later on during Taliban era a large number of Hazaras were compelled to leave their home land Hazarajat and take refuge in neighboring countries. A huge number took refuge in Iran but unfortunately because of their Mongolian back ground they are being treated in-human and called Hazaras as BARBARI, which means barbarian. Hazaras are still struggling to use their original name in Iran but only have been allowed to use the meaningless name of KHAWARI (Eastern people) instead of Hazara. However, in British India Now Pakistan they were treated equally. Therefore, they flourished in all aspects of life quickly. Just imagine that a young Hazara Musa Khan recruited in British army as a common soldier but by his Mongol genetic ability he rose to the post of Commander In Chief of Pakistan army. He successfully led Pakistan army in 1965 Indo-Pak war with 5 time bigger Indian army, however it will be interesting for audience to add that later, during in other war in 1971, this same Pakistan army not only lost his Eastern part present Bangladesh but also faced one of the world’s biggest army surrender of more than 95 thousand soldiers to the Indian army.

Ladies and gentlemen! Unfortunately for last 12 years this most educated and well organized Pakistani Hazaras are facing a wave of genocide and ethnic cleansing by state backed religious extremist militants. So far, more than 600 innocent Hazaras mostly educated and professional have been killed. Once again thousands of Hazaras have been compelled to take refuge in western countries and other thousands are seeking for. But despite all these, I firmly believe that being a Mongol we will survive because we are survivors of the fittest.

Honorable guests! Taking the opportunity of this historic occasion I want to mention here especially for my Mongolian historians and academicians that a huge first hand treasure of information about Great Mongols are available in Persian either in printed or manuscript forms in Iran Pakistan, Afghanistan and India or in big libraries of the world. No doubts without this treasure, compilation of an authentic comprehensive history of Great Mongols are almost impossible. Therefore, I humbly request to my Mongol academicians to take necessary steps for collection and translation of this treasure in to Mongolian and English. Due to shortage of time I am mentioning here a few basic famous sources:-

  1. 1.     Jame-u-tarikh or Compendium of Chronicles written by Rashid-ud-Din
  2. 2.     Tarikhi Jahan Gushah or The history of world conqueror  written by Malik Ata Juwayni
  3. 3.     Tarikhi Wassaf  written by Abdullah Wassaf

These published books were written during Ilkhanate period under direct supervision of Ilkanate kings. 

  1. 4.     Shah name-e-Changezi  un-published book, one manuscript copy is lying in British Museum. It seems that it has been written in poetry form in patron of famous Persian historic book Shah name-e-Firdausi.
  2. 5.     Turkhan Nama written by Syed Mir Mohammad Tatavi, it is about Hazara Arghun dynasty who ruled from Kabul to Sindh during  15th and 16th centuries.

Fortunately I have visited some old libraries in Sindh and Punjab Pakistan, there are dozens of valuable published or un-published historic books about Mongol history in Persian consist of first hand informations. It would be very interesting for my honorable guests that in 2008, I found two very rare books by the name of GHAZAN NAMA and another one OLJAETU NAMA which cover almost all official activities of these two Great kings of Ilkanate dynasty from Karachi Pakistan, in a Sunday footpath book bazaar.

At the end I would like to say especial thanx to birar Baymabakhuu who made possible all this arrangement and of course the organizers of this great event who provide me this opportunity to speak in such a great historic event with such an honorable audience. Thank you very much.

Note:- This write-up was presented in the event of 850th “Anniversary of Chinggis Khaan”   in Mongolian Embassy Washington DC, on May 5th. It was a two Days(May 4-5,2012) International Conference organized by “ The Mongolian Cultural Center Washington” and “The Embassy of Mongolia Washington” In partnership with “The Mongolian Institute for Defense Studies” With contribution from Mongol-American Cultural Association. Well renowned scholars from USA, Mongolia, Canada, Germany, Qazaqstan, Norway, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Korea were presented their articles and presentations. National Geographic Society’s Mr. Albert Yu Min Lin was also presented his presentation.

Source :http://www.wahdatnews.com

 

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Hillary Clinton Congratulates Mongolia


“The brave young people who gathered on the streets in those cold December days in 1989, including a young man who would one day be elected as your new President, helped pave the way for Mongolia to become a dynamic and durable democracy. All over the world that year, we saw a flowering of freedom. People stood up and walls came down,” said Clinton.

“Democracy is never easy – Americans can attest to that. And Mongolia has faced its share of challenges. But through every challenge, the people of Mongolia have pulled together and have risen to the occasion. You have become a model for emerging democracies everywhere. Whenever I visit a country that is struggling to become more democratic, I say what I said when I was in Mongolia: “Let them come to Mongolia!” Because I will never forget my own visit in 1995 — the sweeping beauty of the steppe, the warmth and hospitality of the Mongolian people, and the aspirations of a nation committed to progress after decades of totalitarian rule

“In the years since, Mongolia has consolidated those early achievements and strengthened your democracy. Today even, Mongolian troops are serving around the world as peacekeepers, helping to bring stability to troubled lands.”

“Mongolians and Americans are fighting side by side in Afghanistan against violent extremists who threaten peace-loving people everywhere. We honor the service and sacrifice of your citizens, and we reaffirm the broad partnership between our two nations that is helping build a more peaceful and prosperous world.”

Source :http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/

Hillary Clinton will arrive in Mongolia

Source :http://www.business-mongolia.com

HILLARY R.CLINTON TO VISIT US

Source : http://www.mad-mongolia.com/

Clinton embarks on two-week trip to Asia, Middle East

Source :http://www.foreignpolicy.com/

Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton’s Travel to France, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Egypt and Israel

Source :http://www.state.gov

Clinton in Mongolia as parties dispute vote results Source:http://www.asiaone.com

In Mongolia, Clinton argues for free markets with democracy in Asia, challenging Chinese model Source :http://www.startribune.com/

Clinton promotes democracy in Mongolia

Source :http://news.yahoo.com/

“Valley of the Khans”Experst Meet in D.C

“Valley of the Khans”Experst Meet in D.C


Two of the world’s greatest scholars of Mongol history joined theircollaborators NG Emerging Explorer Albert Lin and NG Archaeology Fellow Fred Hiebert in Washington, D.C. last week to discuss their findings on the Valley of the Khans project, to meet with the Mongolian Ambassador to the U.S. Khasbazaryn Bekhbat, and to engage in other conversations around their exciting work.

For the past few years, Albert has been using cutting-edge technology and innovative crowd-sourcing methods to survey the vast openness of Mongolia in search of the area where Genghis Khan was buried. His collaborators have been uncovering the history of the Mongol leader quite a bit longer.

Professors Shagdaryn Bira and Tsogt-Ichiryn Ishdorj are internationally recognized as leaders in Mongol historical research, based on the decades of intense research they have done on the subject, helping to flesh out the story of the famous conqueror, and restoring a knowledge of the rich cultural impacts of his surprisingly modern empire–one that included free trade of goods and ideas, and freedom of religion for all.

Over the years, Bira and Ishdorj’s research has been difficult at times because of the scant clues in the written record and sensitive politics surrounding the legacy of Genghis Khan.

Professor Bira is now Secretary General of the International Association for Mongol Studies, and laureate of the state prize of Mongolia for his scholarly work on the history of the country. In particular, he has won international acclaim for his multifaceted research, including papers comparing modern and Mongol-era versions of globalization and warfare in the Middle East.

Professor Ishdorj is Deputy Director of the International Association for Mongol Studies, as well as Co-Principal Investigator and Mongolian Expedition Leader on the Valley of the Khans project. Together these scholars bring an incredible amount of historic information, cultural perspective, experience, and personal passion to the project.

2012 marks 850 years since the birth of Temujin, the Mongolian man who would unite his neighbors and conquer the known world under the title of Genghis Khan. After decades of research, years of hi-tech data gathering, and months of archaeological analysis, one more chapter in the long history of this man and his legacy is nearing completion. Stay tuned to discover what secret whispers may yet rise from the silent steppes.

Source :http://exploration.nationalgeographic.com/mongolia/content/%E2%80%9Cvalley-khans%E2%80%9D-experts-meet-dc

The Hazara of Afghanistan: Cultural Exhibit & Lecture

The Hazara of Afghanistan: Cultural Exhibit & Lecture


By: Salman Heydari
           
The Hazara of Afghanistan: Cultural Exhibit & Lecture was developed to increase awareness of the rich history and cultural heritage of the Hazara people from Afghanistan, who now live throughout the world. The Hazara ethnic group, the third largest in Afghanistan, is a culture that has survived despite genocide and decades of political oppression at the hands of the Taliban and other Afghan regimes.
            The lecture and exhibit are the work of Mohammed Rezaee, who emigrated to the U.S. eight years ago.  He now lives in metro Atlanta with his wife and family.  He has delivered the lecture several times in the Atlanta area, at the same time showing photographs (taken by professional photojournalists) of Hazara life, using computer technology to show the photos in large-scale, living color.
            More than hundred Americans, including high level officials, attended the opening on January 17, 2012, an evening reception at which the Americans were served Hazaragi foods, (Bosragh and Pirki) prepared by Mr. Rezaee’s wife.   They were also invited to a display of Hazaragi clothes.
            After the gallery reception Mr. Rezaee gave a lecture about the history of Hazaras and the current conditions of the Hazara people. Also, a brief history of Hazaras, which was written by a famous Hazara historian, Haji Kazim Yazdani, was distributed to those in attendance in a brochure format.
            There was a separate opening for Afghans. Mr. Baisr Dolatabadi, Mr. Abdul Khaliq Hazara, and Ishaq Mohammadi gave lectures—via Skype—about Hazaras’ history, culture, customs, and the current condition of the Hazara people.
            The on-going photo exhibit features works of Hazara photojournalists Hafize Besharat, Muzafer Ali, Barat Ali Batoor, Sajad Goher and Mohammad Rezaee, which had never been seen before in the United States. The photo exhibit (large framed copies of the photographs) was on display at Tucker Public Library, metro Atlanta, until March 28, 2012. Many Americans visited the photo exhibition.
            The lecture-exhibit will again be presented, at no cost, on June 14, 2012.   Georgia Perimeter College, which is one of the largest of Georgia’s institutions, will host the presentation at their Dunwoody Campus. The photo exhibit will be open to the public through July 13, 2012.
 You are cordially invited to attend the lecture for the opening of the photography exhibit, on Jun 14, 2012. The lecture will include a food tasting, a display of traditional clothing items, and discussion of the history and unique culture of the Hazara people.

The organizer of The Hazara of Afghanistan: Cultural Exhibit & Lecture’s Facebook page,